Believe it or not, everyone has had a normal hemorrhoidal tissue in their rectum and anus. It’s only when your hemorrhoidal veins enlarge and become varicose veins that they’re considered abnormal or diseased.
There are three types of hemorrhoids – internal, external, and mixed hemorrhoids that consist of both internal and external. External hemorrhoids are those that occur outside the anal verge and affect bowel cleansing after one’s bowel movement, causing skin irritation and itching. A thrombosed external hemorrhoid is usually very painful due to rupture of one’s varicose veins, which causes blood clots and is often accompanied with swelling and pain. These external hemorrhoids are typically treated with either an incision or removal of the clot, or with an external hemorrhoidectomy performed under local anesthesia.
Internal hemorrhoids are graded from I to IV based on the degree of prolapse. Grade I hemorrhoids bulge with defecation; grade II lesions also bulge with defecation, but then recede spontaneously. Grade III hemorrhoids require digital replacement after prolapsing, while grade IV hemorrhoids cannot be replaced once prolapsed. There are many treatment options for internal hemorrhoids that vary based on the severity of each case, including infrared coagulation, rubber band ligation and hemorrhoidectomy.