A sebaceous cyst is a benign, slow-growing cystic lesion of skin. It forms out of your sebaceous gland. The sebaceous gland produces the oil called sebum that coats your hair and skin. Cysts can develop if the gland or its duct becomes damaged or blocked due to a minor trauma to the skin.
Sebaceous cysts usually develop on acne-prone areas of the face, neck, and upper trunk. Cysts can also be found on the scrotum, behind the ears, and on the scalp. The cysts contain a cheesy, yellow material, and when rupturing, it releases the cheesy material into the tissue, producing redness, tenderness, and swelling.
Small cysts are typically not painful. Large cysts can range from uncomfortable to considerably painful.
This type of cyst is typically filled with white flakes of keratin, which is also a key element that makes up your skin and nails.
The cyst can get infected. The infected cyst becomes an abscess, which cause pain, redness, swelling , and rupture, and skin scarring.
Doctors often diagnose a sebaceous cyst after a simple physical examination. If your cyst is unusual, your doctor may order additional tests to rule out possible cancers.
Minimal excision technique is a simple and effective method that entirely removes the cyst. A tiny cut is made in the skin, and the cyst contents are squeezed out. The cyst wall is pulled through the skin opening, which is so small that stitches aren’t necessary sometimes. If the entire cyst wall is removed, the cyst usually won’t come back.
The doctor may not be able to pull the cyst wall through the skin opening. Cysts that have been inflamed or previously ruptured may have extensive scarring around the cyst wall and be more difficult to remove. A more extensive surgical procedure may be needed if this happens.